«Школа виживання»

від Центру миротворчості

Статті до занять школи виживання


Майбутні миротворці


adopted on 15 November 1979



REC.ALLING Article _16(i) of the Convention on the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization concerri.ing the functions of the Assembly,

BE.ARlliG IN MTh1D disastrous fires in ships, some of which result in heavy loss of life,

RECALLING the relevant regulations of the Jntcrnatio~al Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watch keeping for Seafarers, 1978, and resolutions of the International Conference on Training and Certification of Seafarers, 1978,
CONSIDERil~G it essential that adequate instruction in fire prevention and fire-fighting be given to those engaged in all departments on board ship, and that this should be given as far as practicable and appropriate in pre-sea training courses or other shore-based courses,

NOTING FURTHER that continuous updating of shore-based training in fire-fighting will be ensured by carrying out fire drills described and required

in the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1974, Chapter III, Regulations 25 and 26,

RECALLilJG resolution A.124(V) which recommends that all seafarers should be trained in fire prevention and fire-fighting,

HAVIlfG CONSIDERED the recommendation made by the Maritime Safety Committee at its forty-first session,

1. RECOMMENDS that, each Member Government should aim at training all its seafarers in fire prevention and fire-fighting to an extent appropriate to their functions on board ship and that to this end:

For reasons of economy, this document is printed in a limited number, Delegates are kindly asked to bring their copies to meetings and not to request additional copies.

(a) All seafarers should be instructed in the dangers of fire in ships and the ways in which fires a.re caused;
(b) Training in the prevention and extinguishment of fires should be given as soon as possible in the career of every seafarer, preferably in pre-sea cou:I.'ses;
(c) In preparing the syllabus for the basic fire-fighting training applicable to all seafarers, competent authorities should take into account Annex 1 to the present resolution;

(d) Matters, officers and as far as practicable other key personnel who may also have to control fire-fig..liting operations should have advanced training in techniques for fighting fire with particular emphasis on organization, tactics and command;

(e) In drawing up a syllabus for advanced training, competent authorities should take into account Annex 2 to the present resolution;

(f) Specialized additional training in fire-fighting should be provided to masters, officers and ratings of oil, chemical &~d liquefied gas tankers in accordance with resolutions 10, 11 and 12 of the International Conference on Training and Certification of Seafarers, 1978;

(g) Where training in fire-fighting is not included in the qualifications for other certificates, consideration should be given to the issue of special certificates indicating that the holder has attended a specified course of training in fire-fighting;



l Basic fire-fighting training should include at least the following theoretical. and practical elements.
2 Theory
2.l The three elements of fire and explosion (the fire triru.1gle):
1 fuel;
2 so~ce of ignition;
3 oxygen.
2.2 Ignition sources:
1 chemical;
2 bio loe;ical;
3 physical.
2.3 Flammable materials:
1 flammability;
2 ignition point;
3 burning temperature;
4 burning speed;
5 thermal value;
6 lower flammable limit (LFL);
7 upper flammable limit (UFL);
8 flammable range;
9 inserting;
10 static electricity;
11 flash point;
12 auto-ignition.
2.4 Fire hazard and spread of fire:
1 by radiation;
2 by convection;
3 by conduction.
2.5 Reactivity,
2.6 Classification of fire and applicable extinguishing agents~
2.7 Main causes of fire on board ships:
l oil leakage in engine rpom;
2 cigarettes;
3 overheating (bearings) ;
4 galley appliances (stoves, flues, fryers, hotplates, etc.);
5 spontaneous ignition (cargo wastes, etc.);
6 hot work (welding, cutting, etc.) ; . .
7 electrical apparatus (short circuit, non- professional repairs); .s reaction, self-heating and auto-ignition.
2.8 Fire prevention.
2.9 Fire detection:
1 fire and smoke detection systems;
2 automatic £ire alarm
2.10 Fire-fighting equipment:
1 fixed installations on board and locations:
1.1 fire mains, hydrants;
1.2 international shore connexion;
1.3 smothering installations, carbon dioxide (co2), foam;
1.4 halogenated hydrocarbons;
1.5 pressure water spray system in special category spaces, etc,; ,1.6 automatic sprinkler system;
1.7 emergency fire pump, emergency generator;
1.8 chemical powder applicants;
1.9 general outline of required and available mobile apparatus;
2 fireman's outfits and personal equipment, location, on board:
2.1 fireman's outfit, personal equipment;
2.2 breathing apparatus9
2.3 resuscitation apparatus;
2.4 smoke helmet or mask;
2.5 fireproof life-line and harness;
3 general equipment:
3.1 fire hoses, nozzles, connexions, fire axes;
3.2 portable fire extinguishers;
3.3 fire blankets.
2.11 Construction and arrangements:
1 escape routes;
2 means for gas freeing tanks;
3 Class A, Band C divisions;
4 inert gas systems.
2.12 Ship fire-fighting organization:
1 general alarm;
2 fire control plans, muster stations and duties of individuals;
3 communications, including ship-shore when in port;
4 personnel safety procedures;
5 periodic shipboard drills;
6 patrol systems. ·
2.13 Practical knowledge of resuscitation methods.
2.14 Fire-fighting methods
1 sounding the alarm;
2 locating and isolating;
3 jettisoning;
4 inhibiting;
5 cooling;
6 smothering;
7 extinguishing;
8 reflash watch.
2.15 Fire-fighting agents:
1 water, solid jet, spray, fog, flooding;
2 foam, high, medi'Ulil and low expansion;
3 carbon dioxide (cb );
4 halon;
5 aqueous film forming foam (AFFF);
6 dry chemicals, powder.
3 Practice
Every seafarer should undergo the following practical ·training and satisfy the Administration that he possesses ability to:
1 use various types of portable fire extinguishers;
2 use self-contained breathing apparatus·;
3 extinguish smaller fires, e.g. electrical fires, oil fires, propane fire a;· .
4 extinguish extensive fh'e.s with water (jet and spray nozzles);
5 extinguish fires with either foam, powder or any other suitable chemical agent;
6 enter and pass through wi.th life-line but without breathing apparatus a compartment into which high expansion foam has been injected;
7 fight fire in smoke- filled enclosed spaces wearing self-contained breathing apparatus;
8 extinguish fire with water fog, or any other suitable fire-fighting agent in an accommodation room or simulated engine room with fire and heavy smoke;
9 extinguish oil fire with fog applicator and spray nozzles, dry chemical powder or foam applicators;
10 effect a rescue in a smoke-filled space wearing breathing apparatus.
4 Every seafarer should satisfy the Administration that he is aware of the necessity of maintaining a state of readiness on board.
5 The practical training listed should take place in spaces which provide truly realistic training conditions, e.g. simulated shipboard conditions, and whenever possible and practical should also be carried out in darkness.
Having completed the training outlined in .Annex 1, masters, officers and other key personnel who may also have to control fire-fighting operations should be given additional advanced training which should include the following:
1 fire control aboard ships;
2 the organization of fire parties;
3 training of fire parties;
4 fire-fighting procedures at sea;
5 fire-fighting procedtl.t.'es in port;
6 the hazards associated with the storage and handling of materials (paints, etc.);
7 inspection and servicing of fixed fire extinguishing systems;
8 inspection and. servicing of' fire detection systems;
9 inspection arid serincing of portable and mobile fire extinguishing equipment;
10 inspection and se:rvicing of other fire-fighting equipment;
11 use of water for fire extinguishing, the effect on ship stability, :precautions and correctiv~ procedures;
12 ventilation control;
13 control of fuel and electrical system;
14 fire-fighting process hazards (dry distillation, chemical reactions, boiler uptake, fires, etc.);
15 first aid including cardio-pulmonary resuscitation;
16 fire investigation and reporting;
17 fire-fi involving dangerous goods,

RESOLUTION A.437(XI) adopted on 15 November 1979

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